How does Direct Access map IPv4 to IPv6 addresses?29 May 2012 2 min read.
Good question; if you ever ping a DNS name for a node in your corporate environment which is running IPv4, then the Windows 2012 NAT64 and DNS64 kick into action.
So what happens – well simply really
- First, the DNS64 server checks if there is an IPv6 address registered in the corporate DNS servers for the requested machine
- Assuming no IPv6 address is located within a few milliseconds, a second request is sent to the corporate DNS servers, this time requesting the IPv4 address of the requested machine
- This address let’s assume is returned as 10.5.1.191
- The NAT64 service is asked to create an IPv6 mapping for this to offer back to the requester.
- First the IPv4 address is converted to Hex as follows 10.5.1.191 becomes 0a.05.01.bf
- This is then reduced to 2 octets and looks as follows 0a05:01bf
- Finally, the new address is pre-fixed to the IPv6 address of the Gateway fd0a:d291:9d39:7777
- The final address is then** fd0a:d291:9d39:7777::a05:1bf**
- The client is then offered the IPv6 Address which was just mapped
With the knowledge of how DA builds an IPv6 mapping for an IPv4 address, let’s use this knowledge to reverse the IPv6 back to the IPv4
The address we get a ping for is - fd0a:d291:9d39:7777::a05:1bf
- We drop the pre-fix which points to the NAT64 gateway, leaving us with just the post fix hex address a05:1bf
- Reformat the hex address into its 4 octets -> a.05.1.bf
- And convert this IP address from Hex to Decimal so we can read it 10.5.1.191
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